How to Uncover Donors' Motivations To Better Align Organization Mission and Individual Philanthropy
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"So, why do you support our organization?" This seems like a simple question that many times goes unasked.
Donors are fascinating, unique individuals who consider multiple motivations when deciding how, when and why to be charitable. It is no longer enough to say, "Our donors give because they care about our mission." Perhaps they do care about your mission, but they also care about their missions. Therefore, it is important for us to ask, "What other motivating factors might be at play?"
While it's critical to have a strong understanding of our donors' demographics, contact information, and giving history, a comprehensive donor profile should also include known philanthropy to other organizations, any indications of philanthropic motivation and what challenges they believe philanthropy can solve.
Motivation-based questions, asked and documented at any stage of the donor relationship, provide timeless information about the donor's mindset and their history with charitable giving.
Here are the steps you should take as you think about engaging your prospects.
- Has the relational foundation been established?
- What don't we know about our donor?
- What's critical to understand?
Information can be gathered in typical donor meetings, in small groups or at events. Empower you executive director or board chair to uncover new information when they meet with donor prospects.
Ask the donor:
What do you know about the prospect's motivation to give to your organization? You can learn a lot even from standard "getting to know you" questions. The key is listening to their responses:
- How have you and your family fared during the pandemic?
- Objective: Understand the donor's current circumstances regarding inclination and capacity.
- Listen for: Were there any deaths in the family? (This is an opportunity to express empathy and to explore what this relationship meant to your donor. Down the line, they could be inclined to honor this person with a gift to your organization.) Were there any disruptions to employment personally or in their family? (Are they now responsible for supporting additional family members who lost jobs during the pandemic?) Did they have investments in the stock market that performed well over the past 18 months? (And how do they feel about this?)
- How did you first become involved with our organization?
- Objective: Gain insight into what drew them to your organization and/or tap into their emotional connection to your mission.
- Listen for: At what age did they become aware of your organization? (Was it a transformative time in life?) What were some of their early experiences in association with your organization? (Were these positive experiences? Are they nostalgic?) Are they still in touch with anyone from that period of time? (What connection remains today outside of their relationship with you?)
- Where does [the nonprofit] fall among your philanthropic priorities?
- Objective: Understand priorities and interests.
- Listen for: Listen to the literal answer (how much of a priority is your organization?), but also interpret what this could mean for your organization. Is a hospital among their top philanthropic priorities? Then you might ask whether the donor would be interested in supporting the medical school, nursing program or health sciences degree at your university.
- What do you do in your free time?
- Objective: Evaluate interests, capacity and priorities.
- Listen for: Are they involved with other organizations? (How are they involved? Would they want to do that for you?) Do they spend a lot of time on expensive leisure activities, on travel or at second homes? Do young children keep them busy or are they empty nesters?
- What are your plans for the holidays?
- Objective: Get them talking about family to gain insights into capacity and priorities.
- Listen for: How many family members/generations will be gathering? Do they have children? Do they have aging parents? Are there any houses in the family big enough to host large groups? Are they using the holiday season for exotic or extensive travel?
After your donor answers several questions, confirm what you heard: "I want to make sure I understand/have this correct. You have been a long-time supporter because…" Remember this mantra: Repeat, confirm, document.
Make No Assumptions
Healthcare professionals take an oath to "do no harm." We believe fundraising professionals should take an oath to "make no assumptions." For example, while an alumnus of your institution may have graduated with an economics degree, consider their current interests and activities as possible motivations for giving before assuming they will only want to support their former degree program.
Align organization mission to increase and sustain individual philanthropy
Once we have a better understanding of donor motivation, we can customize and align cultivation, solicitation, and stewardship. This customization meets your donors where they are. What did your donors share?
Based on academic research on donor motivations, there can be multiple motivations at play. Let's explore four common motivations for giving: costs and benefits, reputation, impact/influence and altruism. Based on research from Rene Bekkers and Pamala Weipking, and Michael J. Worth, Sheela Pandey, Sanjay K. Pandey and Suhail Qadummi, we highlight four common motivations for charitable giving:
1. Costs and Benefits
The definition: A donor who is motivated by "costs and benefits" is inclined to give due to the problem philanthropy can solve (tax incentive or annuity) or because of a benefit they receive (concert or sports tickets). They might view philanthropy purely as a business transaction.
The alignment: Solicit gifts that offer a benefit to the donor. For example, a $10,000 contribution that qualifies for a special suite at a football game.
The stewardship: These donors especially appreciate a timely gift acknowledgement and the professionalism of the fundraiser and their organization.
The definition: A donor who is motivated by their reputation may be interested in visible philanthropy that showcases their commitment to the organization. They may also want to use their gift to inspire others to contribute.
The alignment: Solicit gifts that can be celebrated publicly. These gifts can come with naming opportunities or recognition from organization leaders. For example, a $10,000 contribution that will name a current use scholarship.
The stewardship: Acknowledge the gift and the donor to an audience that is important to them (the entire community or just their family and friends). Make the donor feel validated and appreciated by receiving opportunities to engage with beneficiaries, being featured in the press, and receiving external recognition for their contribution.
3. Impact or Influence
The definition: Donors may be interested in impacting their community, your organization or a broader societal ill through their philanthropy.
The alignment: Solicit gifts that have a measurable outcome. For example, a $10,000 contribution that sends a teacher on a research study.
The stewardship: Demonstrate impact through quantitative data and reporting, and illustrate measurable change through storytelling.
The definition: Donors motivated by altruism are selflessly concerned for the well-being of others. They may say, "It makes me feel good to give back to my alma mater" or "I funded a scholarship at the university because meeting the student scholarship recipients brings me such joy."
The alignment: Solicit gifts that support the donor's self-perception as altruistic. For example, a $10,000 gift to an unrestricted or emergency fund to cover unintended expenses.
The stewardship: While some gifts motivated by altruism are made anonymously, donors will want to feel as if they have "done good" for your organization. Their recognition might not need to be exhaustive, but it should be from the heart.